What parts make up a car engine ?

Masterpiece

Mar 15th, 2019

What parts make up a car engine ?

Engines are basically like the heart of our vehicles. They are the power units that are responsible for the spinning of our wheels. Engines have been referred to by most people like machines that are capable of converting one form of energy into mechanical energy. These car engines are built or designed around a set of cooking pots that are referred to as "cylinders." These cylinders on their own are sealed shut and made of super-strong metal. Although they are sealed shut, they happen to open and close at one end. Car engines are made up of a number of important parts that must be taken care of to ensure that the engine does not experience any major failure.
These engines are made up of various parts which may include but are definitely not limited to; pistons, valves, etc. For the purpose of this piece, we will take a look at the main parts of a car engine. While most people would want to undermine the importance of some of these various parts, we'll take a look at some of them and how they all contribute to the overall well-being and efficiency of the car engine.


ENGINE BLOCK


Basically, an engine block is a structure that contains various parts of an internal combustion engine. They are often times referred to as "cylinder blocks," and this is because they happen to be the large casing that contains the cylinder, crankcases, coolant passages, intake and exhaust passages as well as other necessary or vital components. On most designs, an engine block contains the camshaft. On modern cars, engine blocks are made from an aluminum alloy while for trucks and older vehicle models, it is made from some of the common cast iron.


The metal design of the engine gives it this ability and strength to be able to transmit heat from the combustion process down to the cooling system in a much more efficient manner. Engine blocks made of aluminum has been described by most people to have iron pressed towards them. You will find it surprising to know that most of the air-cooled vehicles do not actually come with engine blocks. There are certain components of cylinder blocks, and they include;

Wet liner; it has been revealed that most of the cylinder or engine blocks make use of cylinder walls that have been designed to perfectly fit the walls by means of what is referred to as "special gaskets." These special gaskets are also called wet liners because their external part often times come in direct contact with the coolant of the engine. To explain better, the liner is a wall rather than a sleeve. Some of the main advantages of wet liners are that they take up small space, they have a lower mass, they are able to heat coolant liquid from a cold start which further reduces fuel consumption.


Problems Of Engine Blocks


When it comes to engine blocks, there are a few problems that you have to look out for. We'll take look at some of the main problems that may affect these heavy machines. They include but are definitely not limited to these;


1. Coolant leak; the engine block could crack and begin leaking. Also, the leak may be caused by a leak from a radiator, heater core, water pump, or even from a loose hose. Unknown to most people, freeze out plugs can also cause leakages. It is important that you remember that while plugs can be easily replaced, cracks can often times cause serious damages that may or may not be able to be fixed except to have the engine block replaced completely.


2. Cracked cylinder; like most of the other parts of a vehicle, after much usage, the walls of the cylinder may wear off to the point that the Piston rings cannot hold them together. Although it is very rare, the cylinder may experience a heavy crack which will mean that the cylinder or engine block will have to be rebuilt.


3. Porous engine block; this is mostly caused by contaminants that enter into the cylinder during the process of manufacturing them. It is quite important that you bear in mind that there's nothing that can be done about a porous engine and this is because right from the onset it has already been faulty. Bear in mind that if you experience porous engine block and it is still within the warranty period of the manufacturer, you can have the engine block changed completely.


PISTON'S

This is basically a component of reciprocating pumps, pneumatic cylinders, and gas compressors. It has been described as that moving component that is held by a cylinder and is tightened by piston rings. You will find it interesting to know that in a car or automobile motor, the work of this piston is to help transform force from the gas cylinder to the crankshaft and all this is made possible by a piston rod. Surprisingly in most engines, pistons are capable of acting as valves by uncovering and covering parts of the cylinder.
Pistons are designed to be cylindrical in shape, and they form a portion of the moveable combustion chamber. Pistons also help to transfer power that is caused as a result of explosion or ignition to the crankshaft. It could also be called a heat transfer medium to the cylinder wall.


Trunk Pistons;
These pistons have been designed to act as pistons and also as cylindrical crossheads. This piston design is one of the oldest designs used for internal combustion engines. At that time, they were used mainly for diesel and petrol engines. One of the main features of trunk pistons is that they come with a groove for an oil ring below the gudgeon pin.
Crosshead pistons; most of the lower-speed truck engines may need additional support for the various side forces of the piston. This is why they mostly make use of crosshead pistons. On the other hand, a slipper piston is one that has been designed for the petrol engine and has been reduced in size and weight. The reduced weight of these pistons helps to improve the mechanical efficiency of engines.


Causes Of Damage In Pistons


While we have discussed some of the types and functions of pistons, we'll take a look at some of the main causes of damage in pistons.
1. Overheating; this could be caused by; combustion defaults, having the injection oil bent or blocked, installing the wrong piston and installing the right one the wrong way, cooling system malfunctions, and restrictions in the linear surface area.


2. Impact marks; this could be caused by these; protrusion of the piston is great, excessive or regular machining of the head of the cylinder surface, incorrect or wrong valve recess, wrong cylinder head gasket, having carbon deposits on the piston crown, and wrong or insufficient valve clearance.


3. Melted off materials; this is most of the time caused by these; making use of faulty injection nuzzles, a wrong or incorrect quantity of injected fuel, wrong injection point, ignition delay, insufficient compression, and oscillating injection lines.

4. Cracks on the piston crown; some of the causes of this damage include but are definitely not limited to these; using faulty injection nuzzles, lack of a piston cooling, installing pistons with incorrect bowl shape, etc.
Some of the other damages of pistons include; piston ring damage which is often times caused by installing pistons the wrong way, combustion defaults, wrong piston protrusion dimension, abraded particles when the engine is run.


PISTON RINGS


You cannot discuss piston without mentioning piston rings which help to seal the chamber where pistons move. You will find it interesting to know that there are a number of piston rings used in various engines. We'll take a look at some of these piston rings.


1. Compression rings; these piston rings have been developed or designed specifically to provide coverage or covering above the piston, and this is done to prevent any form of leakage from the combustion area. They can be found in the first grooves of the piston. It is important that you bear in mind that things may change depending on the design of the engine. The main function of compression rings is to help seal the combustion gases at the same time transferring heat from the piston down to the piston walls.


2. Wiper ring; this is often times referred to as back-up compression or Napier rings. They are installed below the rings. The main function of these rings is to have the linear surface clean from excess oil and at the same time acting as a back-up ring capable of stopping any leakage. A number of wiper rings have been designed to have taper angled face which is positioned towards the bottom to enable it to provide a wiping action as the piston is made to move towards the crankshaft. As the name implies, a wiper ring basically cleans or wipes excess oil from the surface to ensure that the engine functions at an optimal level. It is important that you remember clearly that if the wiper ring is installed the wrong way, there definitely would be excess oil consumption which could lead to a faulty car engine.


3. Scrapper rings; often times referred to as oil control rings, scrapper rings are responsible for controlling the amount of oil that is passed down between the cylinder walls. Most times, they are also used to have the oil spread evenly around the circumference of the linear surface. Another main function of these rings is that they are capable of scrapping oil off the cylinder walls and have them sent back to the crankshaft. Interestingly, these rings do not allow oil to pass through the space found between the rings and the cylinder.


Most of the oil control or scrapper rings have been designed with holes or slots in their radial center, and this is done to ensure that the excess oil scrapped flows back to the oil reservoir instead of flowing down to other parts of the engine. Most of the times, oil rings can come in one or two pieces. Unknown to most people, the contact between the rings and the linear can be increased. All that would have to be done is have the rings chamfered on both edges.


The most popular material used in making piston rings is iron casts and this simply because they contain graphite in a lamellar form which helps act as a lubricant offering needed assistance to the sliding motion between the linear surface and rings.


Currently, there are two ways a piston engine can convert combustion energy into motive power, and they are; the two-stroke and four-stroke ways. The main difference between these two-stroke ways is that the two-stroke cylinder produces power once every cylinder revolution. On the other hand, the four-stroke cylinder is capable of producing power twice every cylinder revolution. Research has gone further to reveal that most of the older designs or versions of two-stroke engines produced more pollution than those of the four-stroke engines.  


To ensure that pistons and piston rings are in perfect shape, regular inspections should be done. When inspecting pistons, a screwdriver is used to press the piston rings together. According to experts, this is done to determine the tension of the rings. Also, it helps to tell if the ring is faulty or not. If you observe that the piston rings are not functioning as they should, you would need to carry out a proper overhaul. It is important that you remember that during this period, the piston ring sets are to be completely changed.


OIL PUMP


This has been described by most people as the heart of the lubrication system of a car engine. It is designed in such a way that it sucks up a reasonable amount of oil from the oil pan and in turn, have them forced around the oilways in the engine. This is one of the most important parts of a car engine and unknown to most people, immediately the oil pump stops working, it will definitely lead to total failure of the engine. This one of the main reasons why it is placed away from the crankshaft. Basically, oil pumps are found in the oil pan and on rare occasions, it is found in the front of the engine.
While most people may undermine the true importance of an oil pump, it is better they realize that it is a system that would help to steady the oil pressure of their cars to ensure that lubricants flow right from one part to the other components of the engine. As stated earlier, oil pumps are basically the heart of the engine as they ensure that all parts work together for the overall good of a car.


Let's take a look at how oil pumps work. Through the pipe referred to as pickup pipe, the oil pump is able to suck up oil. The nozzle of this pipe has been designed in such a way that it sits below the surface of the oil, and it is made to be covered by a filter which helps to prevent any form of large particles from being sucked up right up to the pump. The filter is designed in such a way that it is not completely blocked as this would prevent the engine from being able to pick up any oil which leaves the engine at great risk of being destroyed.


Most of the oil pumps that have been developed are designed in such a way that they are driven directly by the crankshaft. These oil pumps have also been referred to as "positive displacement pumps," and this is simply because the exact amount of oil that enters is the same that leaves. In a literal sense, these oil pumps are capable of moving oil from one side of the engine to another side.


The main aim of an oil pump is to simply convey or move oil from one part of the engine to another part. As it does this, it tends to lubricate at the same time building up the oil pressure found in the lubrication system. These oil pumps are often times operated by a crankshaft by means of auxiliary drives. The amount of oil that is conveyed or moved from one part of the engine to the other part would depend entirely on the speed, size, and also the design of the pump. There are a number of reasons why an engine should be lubricated. These reasons include but are definitely not limited to these;
•To ensure that all of the sliding components of the engine is supplied with enough oil to prevent any form of wear or friction.
•To ensure that the engine components are cooled to prevent it from overheating
•To protect the engine from corrosion
•It helps to dampen vibration and noise
•It helps to create a fine sealing between the cylinder walls and the piston


CAMSHAFT
Basically, a camshaft is a rod which rotates and also slides against in a piece of machinery, and all this is done to turn rotational motion into circular motion. According to experts, the change of motion is done by the camshaft moving closer from the axis of rotation as the camshaft is being pushed by the machinery. When it comes to a camshaft, the moving pieces are referred to as the "cams." The distance that is moved is referred to as the "throw."


On an internal combustion heat engine, a camshaft is the main device that controls both the expulsion and input of fuel. It is made up of a number of radial cams each of them seeking to displace exhaust valves or intake. Through either of chains or gears, camshafts are being connected to the crankshaft, and this is done to ensure consistent timing of each of the valves in relation to the motion of the piston.


It has been revealed that the performance level of a camshaft will depend on how the valve performs as well as the function of the cam itself. Interestingly, there are a number of materials that are used to make up the camshaft. Some of these materials include but are definitely not limited to these;
•Grey cast iron
•Heat-treated steel
•Nitrided steel
•Ductile cast iron


Most of the time, camshafts have been designed in a hollow way. The cam tracks and the bearing are mostly surface-hardened. Depending on the idea of the manufacturer, these camshafts can be made available or even separately as a kit. There are actually two main types of camshafts. Overhead camshafts and those that are made in the engine block. The overhead valve camshaft is found in the engine block at the same time acting on the valve through pushrods and rocker arms. According to experts, this type of valve operation is mostly suitable for engines that are of low speed. This is mostly because of the various mechanical components which would have to be moved by the valve on spring closing. On the other hand, the overhead camshaft often times have been designed for high-speed engines
To ensure that there's no damage, the camshaft would have to placed properly together. Currently, with most of the new engines been designed with more than one piston, having just one camshaft is definitely not enough. For camshafts and the car engine to perform efficiently, there is a need to have precise or accurate timing.


CONNECTING RODS
Being part of a car engine, connecting rods play an important role in the performances of an engine. Unknown to most people, the role of these rods play cannot be matched. This is why it is important that they are properly maintained. Basically, connecting rods have been described by experts as a rigid member or part of a car engine that connects a piston to the crankshaft. When working together with a crank, connecting rods form this mechanism that is capable of converting reciprocating motion into rotating motion. They are also capable of converting rotating motion to reciprocating motion.
Interestingly, the origin of connecting rods can be traced back to the third century and is currently being used today in internal combustion engines. Currently, they are made of steel but at the same time can be made of aluminum alloys or even titanium. The main reason why connecting rods are made in aluminum is so that it is light and has the ability to absorb high impact. On the other hand, it is made in titanium to ensure that it is light and incredibly strong. Basically, connecting rods have two main ends; the big end and small end.
The small end of the connecting rod is attached to the piston pin or the wrist pin. One of the main characteristics of the small end is the fact that it either comes with a solid or split eye. The big end, on the other hand, is connected to the crankshaft through the crankpin. As mentioned above, while the small end of the connecting rod may have a solid or split eye design, the big end is most of the times split. When in operation, the connecting rod happens to be subject to bending stresses and combined axial.


Problems Of Connecting Rods


It is important that you remember that the connecting rod is constantly under stress from the conversion of the rotating motion to reciprocating motion and vice versa. Unknown to most people, the stress or load of the connecting rod continues to increase as the speed of the engine increases. One of the most catastrophic forms of connecting rod failure which is referred to as "throwing a rod" is capable of causing the engine to fail. Some of the other things that could lead to the failure of this connecting rod are over reviving of the engine and improper tightening. Most times, people have been left with no option than to make use of old connecting rod bolts. While this is not wrong in any way, it is advised that you make use of rod bolts that meet the requirements and specifications of the manufacturer. While these failures mentioned above occur frequently on televised automobile events, they happen to be rare on production cars that are driven daily. The main reason for this is that most of the production parts have a much larger safety level and offer a more systematic and quality control.
When it comes to the creation of some of these high-performance engines, close attention is paid to connecting rods. What they do is to eliminate or remove stress risers in these rod bolts, and some of the most common techniques is having to grind the edge of the rod to make it smooth to ensure that crack is not in any way experienced. Also, care is taken to ensure that the rod bolts are connected properly to the specified values. You will find it interesting to know that some of the engines of most new model cars like the Ford 4.6 and Chrysler 2.0 engines have connecting rods that are made from powder metallurgy. This process allows for more faster and efficient engine performance. Most of the V-12 engine layout has been designed with only a small space left for connecting rods. According to experts, it is quite difficult and has led to countless engines being called failures. To solve this problem in road car engines is to make use of simple rods where cylinders share a journal.


The functions of a connecting rod


As mentioned above, the connecting rod is capable of converting the linear up and down movement of the piston to the circular motion of the crankshaft. With this, you will expect the rod to be subject to tension, bending, buckling, and compression.
The main function of the connecting rod is to help create a link between crankshaft and piston and at the same time transmitting power. The rod bolt is designed in such a way that it is mounted on the crankpin on the crankshaft with a plain or simple bearing. To ensure that these connecting rods are of high strength and minimal in weight, it is made of the following materials. These materials include; sintered materials, microalloyed steels, high-grade aluminum, and titanium for high-performance engines. Most of the mass-produced connecting rods are either cast, forged, and sintered. The forged connecting rods are designed in such a way that they exhibit a better strength to weight ratio and also lower costs than the connecting rods.


According to experts, connecting rods would have to be replaced if it happens to be completely at fault. These faults could be that;
•It is bent or even broken
•If peradventure the toothed belt is torn or that there's a broken chain
•If there's major knocking combustion or piston damage.
•If the amount of bearing is detected


Versions of Connecting Rods


There are a number of connecting rods that have been designed in the last couple of years. They include but are definitely not limited to these;
1. Angled and straight separation; it has been revealed that most of the large crankpins have connecting rods that may be separated at an angle. This is vital to ensure that the connecting rod is able to slide to into the cylinder. According to experts, the connecting rod when used in an angle separation manner must be installed in a perfect position.
2. Cracked joint faces; they are mostly produced as single units and then split into two parts. Each of these parts will then be screwed together when they have assembled the connecting rods with a fracture point that ensures that the connecting rods are positioned perfectly. On account of breakage geometry, connecting caps and rods must be used together, meaning that they cannot be interchanged. It has further been revealed that most of the crack connecting rods are stronger and have a higher cost production accuracy. Once the connecting rods and caps are joined together, it allows for maximum force transmission.
3. Miled or polished joint faces; there's another procedure or way through which the connecting rod and cap are separated is through or by cutting. The bearing cap is fixed with locating bolts or pins.


CRANKSHAFT


This refers basically to a mechanical part of a car engine that is capable of performing conversion between reciprocating motion and circulating motion. Crankshaft in a typical reciprocating engine translates the reciprocating motion of pistons into circulating motion. On the other hand, in a reciprocating compressor, a crankshaft converts rotational motion to reciprocating motion. To ensure that there's a conversion between two motions, crank throws and crankpins must be present in a crankshaft.
To explain crankshaft better, let's say that the combustion of fuel shoots the piston down the cylinder, the main job of the crankshaft would be to convert linear motion into rotation motion, and this can be done by simply pushing the piston back up to the cylinder. Before we can truly understand how a crankshaft works, we'll need to understand certain terminologies. The first crankshaft term that should be known is the "journal." This refers basically to a part of the crankshaft that rotates inside a bearing. Actually, there are two foremost types of journals, the bearing journal, and the connecting rod journal. The bearing journal as described by experts forms the axis of rotation for the crankshaft while the connecting rod journal is designed in such a way that they are connected or secured to the end of the connecting rods which are made to run up the pistons. To ensure that you do confuse yourself, the connecting rod can also be referred to as rod journal. Crank radius is referred to as the distance between the crankshaft pin and main journal. The measurement between how fast the piston travels and as the crankshaft rotates. The main distance between the piston and the crankshaft is called "stroke."
Crankshaft works in such a way that it extends outside the crankcase and ends with a flywheel flange.


Functions of the crankshaft


Crankshaft has been designed in such a way that it is capable of withstanding considerable loads in the process.  It happens to be subject to torsional vibration as the movement of the crankshaft is abruptly decelerated and accelerated. Also, the bearings have been designed to be subject to a high degree of wear and tear.


Components Of Crankshaft


To ensure that crankshaft is capable of withstanding wear and tear of strains, it would have to have a tough core and a hard surface. This is one of the main reasons why crankshafts are forged. Nitrided steel or alloyed heat-treated steel are the main raw materials used in forging a crankshaft. The journals of the crankshaft have also been made to be hard at the surface. Crankshafts are made up of the following components;
•Main journals
•Crank webs
•Crank pins
•Counterweights


As mentioned earlier, the main journal has been designed to run in the main bearing at the same time defining the axis of rotation of the shaft. On the other hand, the connecting rods are being added to the crank pins, while crank webs connect the crank webs to the main journal. The counterweights lastly provides balancing are made to be attached to the webs. It is designed in the firing order of the engine, the design of the engine, the design of the cylinder as well as the size and number of the crankshaft bearing it has further been revealed that a height adjustable crankshaft mounting making use of an eccentrically mounted crankshaft bearing makes it very possible to achieve variable compression. One of the main advantages of variable compression is that the fuel consumption level can be reduced by over 25%.
Currently, more manufacturers prefer to have their crankshaft forged through roll forging or cast in ductile steel. These manufacturers tend to focus more on forging crankshafts, and this is simply because they happen to be more compact, lighter weight, and happens to have better inherent damping. When it comes to forging crankshafts, microalloyed steels are mostly used because these steels happen to be air cooled once it reaches a high strength. The use of low alloy content makes it less expensive when compared to the others. While carbon steels can also be made use of, they would require the manufacturer to add heat treatment to ensure that it reaches its desired properties. Currently, most of the crankshafts that are made of cast iron are found in some of the cheaper or less expensive production engines. An example of this less expensive engine is the Ford Focused diesel engine. Aside from this engine, there are a number of them that make use of crankshafts made of iron cast; on the other hand, the most expensive car engines make use of the steel forged crankshaft.


Another way crankshafts can be made is through machining. It can be machined out of billet which is basically a bar of superior quality vacuum remelted steel. Often times, the fiber flow does not entirely follow the shape of the crankshaft but this is not actually a problem as higher or superior quality steels which are often times difficult to forge can be made use of. The crankshafts that are manufactured through this means happen to be expensive, and this is because a large number of materials must be removed with milling machine and lathes. Interestingly, there is no need for an expensive tool, meaning that it would allow for small productions without higher costs. Some of the crankshafts that have been severely damaged may also be repaired simply by welding.


How A Crankshaft Can Be Cleaned


To clean the crankshafts, they are soaked in a hot tank, and the overall shaft is power washed. For the oil holes, they have to be wire brushed. To fully inspect a crankshaft, a magnetic participle inspection is used to check for any form of cracks on the crank once it is magnetized, it is then sprayed with iron oxide powder which helps to make all imperfections visible under blacklight condition. The counterweights which happen to be one of the main components of the crankshaft would have to be removed and properly checked for tightness and cracks. Once they are checked, they would have to be reinstalled back to the crankshaft which would have to be inspected for any form of damage. A thorough or proper check on the crankshaft would have to be carried out if it is to be in perfect shape.


VALVES


Being one of the main components of a car engine, valves are simply mechanical devices that control the flow and also pressure within a system or even a process. They happen to be an essential system of a piping system that is capable of conveying liquid, vapors, gases, and slurries. Currently, there are a number of valves available. Most people have referred to valves as basic devices that have been designed to regulate or direct the flow of liquid gas by either opening, closing, or even partially a number of passageways. While these valves are fittings, you will be surprised to know that they are discussed in a separate category.


Valves currently happen to be one of the most famous parts of a car engine. It also happens to have a number of used. Valves can be found in the cylinder of a car engine as mentioned above; they help to ensure that there is a passage of liquid and gas. In a car engine, valves work in such a way that they open and close several times to admit fuel and air at the same time allowing some of the burned exhaust gas to escape. The widespread for valves is one of the main reasons why they are either made in metal or plastic, and they also tend to have a number of different parts. The external or outer part of the valve is referred to as the seat, and most times, it has been designed to come with a soft inner rubber accompanied by a metal outer casting or even plastic steel to ensure that the valve is capable of making a closure that would be tight. Surprisingly, the inner part of the valve that is responsible for opening and closing is referred to as the "body," and it is designed to fit perfectly into the sit when the valve has been closed. A number of ways have been designed to open and also close a valve. It can be opened either a manual lever or through an automated mechanism.


It is of the essence that the valve of a car engine that has been switched off to have no gas or liquid escape through any means as this could result in pollution, explosion, and also the loss of valuable chemicals. This is a reason why a valve must be tight. There are a number of valves, and for the purpose of this piece, we'll mention some of them. They include;
1. Ball; in this type of valve, a hollowed-out sphere is designed to sit tightly in a pipe completely blocking the flow of any liquid or fluid. When the handle is turned, the ball turns about 90° in that process allowing the fluid to completely flow through the middle of it.
2. Butterfly valve; this refers basically to a disk that has been designed to sit right in the middle of a pipe and turns sideways either to admit fluid or to completely block the flow of fluid.
3. Cock and plug; in this type of valve, the flow of fluid or air is blocked by a plug that is cone-shaped, and that moves aside when you have the wheel turned
4. Globe valve; the most common example of this type of valve is water taps. Once you have turned the handle, the valve is screwed up and down to allow water to flow through the pipe. The main difference between this valve and that of the other mentioned is that the globe valves allow for more or lesser fluid to pass through it.
5. Gate or sluice valve; they work in such a way that metals are lowered across them. It has been revealed that a majority of these valves are either fully closed or fully open. It has also been revealed that most of the times, they do not function properly.
We cannot discuss valves without mentioning the valve bonnet which is responsible for covering the body of the valve. It is often times forged of the same material as the valve body. Interestingly, during the process of manufacturing the valve, the basic components which are disk and stem are placed into the body of the valve and the bonnet is used to cover them up.


CYLINDER HEAD


According to various sources, the cylinder head is simply a detachable metal that has been designed to fit perfectly into the top of a cylinder block. When you mention cylinder head in car engines, you need to undergo that they contain part of the combustion chamber. In most four-stroke engines, a cylinder head plays host to valves and other operating mechanisms.
In simpler terms, a cylinder head refers to the upper part of an engine that has been designed to cover the upper part of a cylinder. Currently, most of the cylinder heads available are made of cast iron, and this makes them more durable and cheap. While cast iron has proven to be durable and quite cheap, it happens to provide a lesser efficiency level in the dissipation of heat. This is one of the main reasons most car engine manufacturers would prefer to make use of cylinder heads that are made from aluminium. Cylinder heads made from aluminum happen to be lighter and more efficient making it ideal for high-performance vehicles like race cars and other fast vehicles.


Vehicles that have been designed with inline engines make use of one cylinder head while the other cars that have V engines have two cylinder heads. Most of the other industrial or larger vehicles also have one head per cylinder, thus, making the replacement of a cylinder head much more affordable than envisaged. Currently, there are different types of cylinder heads that have been designed and used for various car engines. The types of cylinder heads are;
1. Flathead cylinder head; this happens to be one of the very first cylinder heads that were designed. The main feature of these cylinder heads is that they do not have any moving parts; all they do is simply protect the cylinder block. They do not actually allow for a perfect of ideal flow of air, and this is why they provide or offer poor engine performance.
2. Overhead valve; they have been referred to by most people as the most advanced form of cylinder heads that have been designed. They are designed with camshafts placed right above them. To ensure that there is free flow, these cylinder head have their valves and pushrods firmly connected.
3. Overhead camshaft cylinder heads; this is also one of the many cylinder heads that come with a unique and advanced design. These cylinder head have been designed in such a way that there is no need for pushrods as the camshaft has been placed right inside the cylinder. This is currently one of the highly efficient engines that have been designed.


Some Problems Cylinder Heads Encounter


One of the most foremost problems of cylinder heads is that of cracks that occur oftentimes which is caused by overheating of the engine. This problem happens to be the most common because a cracked cylinder head would definitely leak coolant which will, in turn, make the engine unable to efficiently cool off. With the engine unable to efficiently cool off, there could be an overheating of the engine.


When there's a crack in the cylinder head, it will lead to oil leaking into the combustion chamber. This has proven over time to be the detriment to the good functioning of the engine. In a number of cases, when this happens, there would be a need to change or replace the engine. This would definitely be expensive. Another problem of the cylinder head is poor engine performance and also engine misfire. Most people when their engine overheats, all they would do is just add water into the radiator without even finding out the root of the problem. A cylinder head is one of the most important components of a car engine; it plays a major role in the flow of air in and outside of the cylinder at the same time helping in fuel deployment.
While most people would want to undermine the importance of a cylinder car to a car engine, it is important that they bear in mind that it plays host to the valves and injectors. It also happens to contain a higher number of moving parts than any of the other parts of a car engine. A cylinder head is sealed with a head gasket. A number of passages are found inside the cylinder head. Unlike most of the other parts of a car engine, the cylinder head because of its nature has been made subject to a number of extreme temperatures that it has to resist by all means possible.


As mentioned earlier, cylinder heads happen to contain more moving parts than any of the other parts of an engine, and these parts have been calibrated precisely to ensure that the needs of the engine are met. They are covered by gasket head, and this is why they do not actually suffer the same wear and tear that most of the parts of an engine suffer. While they do not suffer wear and tear like most of the other parts of a car engine, it is of essence that they are regularly inspected and should only be changed when there is a major problem. Some of the main functions of a cylinder head include but are definitely not limited to these;
•It helps to seal the combustion chamber
•It helps to absorb the combustion power
•It helps to supply the moving component of the valve train
•It helps in the dissipation of heat through various coolant channels and cooling liquid.


When it comes to cylinder heads, it is important that you remember carefully that the combustion process that takes place on the cylinder block is capable of exerting a high amount of force on the cylinder head. This is why it is important that the torques used to tighten the cylinder head match those that have been specified by the manufacturer. To prevent deformation of any kind, the tightening sequence of the cylinder bolts should be followed as specified by the manufacturer. If the guidelines of the manufacturer are not followed properly, harmful deformations may occur.


Versions Of Cylinder Heads


1. Cylinder head for passenger cars; they are made available in grey cast iron or even aluminum. Bear in mind that this depends entirely on the type of engine. This version of cylinder head has been designed in such a way that it is repair and user-friendly.
2. Single cylinder heads; these cylinder head have been designed for use for most of the utility vehicles. One of the main advantages of this type of cylinder head is that they can be replaced individually in the event that there's a case of damage.
3. Multiple cylinder heads; they are mostly used for passenger car engines and are in rare occasions used in many utility vehicle engines.
These engine parts mentioned here have all been designed in such a way that they work efficiently together. It is important that they are installed as stated by the manufacturer. Also, the cleaning and maintenance should be taken into consideration to ensure that none of them cracks as it may have an effect on the performance level of the car engine.


Thank you for taking the time to read my piece, as you could imagine it took hours and hours if research to put this comprehensive article together, if you enjoyed it please let me know by emailing me at hello@carpart.com.au or even if you have a question or a topic you would like me to write about to do with carports in general, if you enjoyed this I best you would enjoy my piece on how a car works from a - z !